challenges need the transformative solutions the World Bank Group President has called for as much as jobs. Over the next 15 years developing countries need to create at least 600 million, or 3 million jobs per month, just to keep up with demographic growth. And with the persisting economic crisis, and more volatility ahead, we need new solutions. One of the most controversial approaches, in theory, has been industrial policy—a phrase not heard in the Bank Group for many years, although the approach has been used widely, even if quietly. “In Europe we have been experimenting with this.